Liquidating a Company

This article is intended as a comprehensive guide to liquidation for company directors, explaining how it works, the process, and the consequences.

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Liquidation of a Company

What is Meant by the Phrase Liquidation of Company?

Liquidation, also known as ‘winding up’ a company, is the process through which a company is closed, its assets sold to pay off any debts, and the remaining proceeds are divided between the shareholders.

What are the Types of Liquidation?

(1) Insolvent

If a company is insolvent (i.e. can’t pay its creditors as and when payments become due or its debts outweigh its assets on the balance sheet), then it will be liquidated voluntarily (by directors who recognise that the company can go no further) using a process known as Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation.

The second possibility for insolvent companies is that they are forced into a compulsory liquidation procedure, by creditors.

(1) Solvent

If the company is solvent, a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation is the appropriate method for liquidating a solvent limited company with assets.

Read our full article on MVL’s here.

What are the Circumstances of Compulsory Liquidation?

A Compulsory Liquidation is usually instigated by one of the company’s creditors.

In a Compulsory Liquidation, the company is wound up through the courts and an official receiver is appointed as the liquidator of the company.

What are the Grounds for Winding Up a Company?

A creditor has the right to issue a winding-up petition to the courts if the company owes it an amount of more than £750.

It must have previously served a Statutory Demand on the company, and no agreement or payment been made in response to the demand.

The creditor will have to pay the court fees and a deposit (which is repaid by the company if it has sufficient funds), so it is not usually a decision that is taken lightly by creditors.

The Winding up Order

After the winding up petition has been issued, there will be a court hearing for the courts to hear the evidence and to decide whether to make a winding up order. If the order is made, the court will appoint an official receiver to realise the company’s assets, distribute the proceeds to creditors and wind the company up.

This is the least palatable of the three kinds of liquidation: not only is the company forced into liquidation, but it is a very public process that can be damaging to the reputation of the company and its directors.

If you are being threatened with a Compulsory Liquidation, you should seek professional advice immediately to discuss your options.

Read more about Compulsory Liquidation

What Does it Mean When a Company Goes into Voluntary Liquidation?

A Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation will be used where the company is insolvent and the liquidation process is instigated by the directors.

As the company is insolvent, when it is liquidated the proceeds from the assets will not be enough to pay off its arrears in full and there will not be any leftover proceeds to be shared between the shareholders.

How do I put my Company into Voluntary Liquidation?

In a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation the directors will appoint a licensed insolvency practitioner to convene meetings of the shareholders and the creditors.

The shareholders need to pass a winding up resolution by at least 75%, which also appoints the insolvency practitioner as the liquidator. The creditors then can vote to ratify the appointed liquidator, or to appoint an alternative liquidator.

The liquidator(s) will then realise the company’s assets and distribute them to the creditors in their order of priority before dissolving the company.

Can I Liquidate my own Company?

While this is a commonly asked question, the simple answer is no. The law requires that liquidation be carried out by a licensed insolvency practitioner.

If you are concerned that you won’t be able to afford the costs of liquidation, do give us a call to discuss your situation and we can try to explain the best deal available to you for a cost-effective insolvency. Liquidations are usually paid for, in any case, from the realisation of assets rather than the directors own finances. There are also options to pay for it via statutory directorial redundancy payments.

Can I Start a new Company after Liquidation?

There is no law preventing directors whose companies have been liquidated from serving as a director again. The only restrictions concern the starting up of a new company with either the same or a similar name to the previous one. Section 216 of the Insolvency Act contains laws against this which we cover here.

What Does Liquidation Mean for Employees?

Insolvent liquidation will mean the end of the company, and hence all employees will lose their jobs. Employees do have a right to claim money owed to them via the insolvency practitioner overseeing the case, although whether this can be paid will depend on how much money is raised by the realisation of assets.

Should the company coffers be empty, and with no assets to liquidate, the government offers redundancy payments, wage arrears, holiday page, and unpaid pension contributions up to certain statutory limits.

How Long does it Take to Liquidate a Company?

It usually takes up to two weeks to appoint a liquidator, after which point the directors powers cease. Actually realising the assets of the company, however, is a more protracted process and varies hugely depending on the size and complexity of the company situation. On average it takes between 6 and 24 months to complete a liquidation.

Which Should You Choose?

If you want to liquidate your company and the company is solvent, you will need to use a Members’ Voluntary Liquidation. If company is insolvent and liquidation is unavoidable, a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation is the preferable route as directors have more control over the process and it does not involve the courts. Read more about the advantages of a Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation over a Compulsory Liquidation here.

Whichever route you are considering, call us today on 0208 444 2000 to discuss available options or contact us using this form.

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